Why Do Women Live Longer Than Men?
There have been various studies done on the average lifespan of human beings based on their gender. Every study indicates that on an average, women live 5 years longer than men.
Average Life Expectancy: Men Vs Women
- In the USA, women live 5 years longer than men
- In Sweden, women live 4 years longer than men
- In France, women live 7.8 years longer
- In the UK, women live 5.8 years longer
- In Australia, women live about 4.4 years longer.
- In India and Bangladesh, the difference is as low as 0.6 or 0.1 years.
Various reasons like psychology, health conditions, genetics, and hormones account for this difference in life expectancy, mentioned below are the same.
1. Women Have Lower Lifestyle-Related And Occupational Risk
Research indicates that men are more prone to drinking alcohol and smoking compared to women. This could lead to various other disorders which affect their life span. Due to their muscular strength, men are in occupations which could put their lives at risk. Some of these occupations are working in mines, being in military services, and driving. With diminishing examples of gender stereotyping, women are becoming a part of every industry; yet, some professions still have a male majority, increasing their mortality rate.1
2. Women Have Lower Risk Of Cardiovascular Diseases
Smoking and alcohol put men at an increased risk of getting cardiovascular diseases. The mortality of men increases by 40% with increased chances of getting arteriosclerosis due to smoking. This also elevates their risk of having a stroke. Studies also show that women have better stress handling capabilities compared to men, which is yet another reason of decreased risk in women. Women tend to face these problems between age 70 and 80, while men become a victim of these between age 50 and 60.
3. Women Have 2 Copies Of Each Gene
Chromosomes come in pairs, and it is a known fact that females have 2 X chromosomes, while men have X and Y chromosomes. The presence of 2 X chromosomes in women lets them have 2 copies of each gene. And, as cells age, if one of the genes gets damaged, the other could back up for its normal functioning. The absence of another X chromosome in men negates the chance of having a backup, leading to continuous aging of cells, making them more susceptible to diseases.
4. Women Have Estrogen Which Has A Protective Effect
Estrogen is a female hormone that regulates various body activities. It contains antioxidants which act as scavengers, removing the poisonous chemicals and stress caused by cell aging. Experiments conducted on animals show that female animals deprived of estrogen heal slowly when diseased, as the cell repair process is affected.
Estrogen also eliminates the bad cholesterol and plays an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies show that estrogen may play a vital role in the functioning of the liver, which is responsible for cholesterol digestion. Some cases have shown a delayed onset of Alzheimer’s disease in women, due to the presence of estrogen.
5. Women Have Low Risk Of Testosterone Toxicity
Testosterone is a hormone found in both men and women. It is responsible for the mental and physical health of men, accounting for muscle and bone mass, and impacts their sex drive. It is present in very minimal amounts in women. During late teenage and the 20s, men undergo a process called “testosterone storm” which could lead to aggressive behaviors and actions. They tend to have an increased risk-taking ability during this phase, making themselves a prey to accidents, depression, or suicide.
Such behavior-related fatalities prevail in men even at an older age. Studies show that this could double their risk of dying in an accident or quadruple the risk of taking their own life. Researchers define this hormone-related mortality as “testosterone toxicity,” which increases the levels of bad cholesterol and decreases the levels of good cholesterol. This makes men more prone to heart disease and stroke.
6. Women May Have An Evolutionary Advantage
Some studies provide the backing of Darwin’s theory of evolution – “the survival of the fittest” to prove that nature favors the longevity of women. Since bringing up the young one requires a persistent investment of energy, nature supports the long lifespan of females in all species. Not just human beings, research shows that female sperm whales outlive their male counterparts by an average of 30 years.
Having said that, each of us has an option of making lifestyle choices that are healthier and keep us happy. Irrespective of the gender, following an active and healthy lifestyle, which includes a balanced diet, regular exercise, giving up on alcohol or smoking could increase your lifespan!
References [ + ]
|1.||↑||Waldron, Ingrid. “Why do women live longer than men?.” Social Science & Medicine (1967) 10, no. 7-8 (1976): 349-362.|
Disclaimer: The content is purely informative and educational in nature and should not be construed as medical advice. Please use the content only in consultation with an appropriate certified medical or healthcare professional.