Possible Side Effects Of Hair Dye You Must Know About
As the popularity of hair dyes continues to soar, many are worried about the possible side effects of its high chemical content. There are mixed opinions about the relationship between hair color and cancer. Allergies to hair color are common and it can also damage hair in the long run. While research shows it is also relatively safe to use hair color while pregnant or breastfeeding, err on the side of caution. There are several natural alternatives to chemical hair color such as henna that could be better for hair health.
What used to be a way to surreptitiously conceal rogue gray hairs in the privacy of your own home a few decades ago is poised to become a $29 billion market by 2019!1 We’re talking about hair color or hair dye, and it looks like men and women alike can’t get enough of it.
Hair dye is no longer just for concealing gray hairs either. People are choosing to color their hair to express their personality, experiment with their looks, and simply to achieve a vibrant and healthy looking head of hair!
Fun fact: the hair coloring trend isn’t as recent as you’d think. In fact, roots of the hair color trend (see what we did there?) can be traced back to as early at 1500 BC when ancient civilizations used natural pigments and even leeches to color hair!
But how safe is it to color your hair? Are there health implications you need to be aware of? Let’s find out.
Hair Dye Versus Hair Color: Is It The Same Thing?
Yup! The words hair color and hair dye are used interchangeably and they mean the same thing. However, more often that not, you’ll find colorists and stylists use “color” rather than “dye.” After all, it sounds less harsh and obtrusive!
Types Of Hair Dyes
Hair dyes are broadly classified into permanent, semi-permanent, and temporary dye depending on the amount of peroxide contained in the formula.
Permanent hair dye contains the highest concentration of peroxide and it opens up your hair shaft to deliver color deep into your hair. Although “permanent” hair dye will fade and grow out over time, it is still the most long-lasting formula of all three, lasting about 8–10 weeks.
Semi-permanent hair dye adds color to your hair without opening up the hair shaft. This formula is designed to deposit color into the cuticles of the hair shaft and also add shine. These are gentler alternatives to permanent color because they contain low amounts of peroxide, but they only last about 6 weeks.
Temporary hair dye is truly temporary and works for those who are looking to briefly experiment with a different hair color or want a very subtle color change. This formulation only lasts until the next time you wash your hair and the colors only sit on the surface of your hair, outside the cuticle.2
Side Effects Of Hair Dye
No matter which formula of hair dye you favor, you should know what’s in it. Hair dyes contain more than 500 different chemicals, and so it is natural to be concerned about its potential side effects. Scientists have been investigating whether exposure to these chemicals poses health hazards, not just to those who use hair color but to professional colorists as well. Here’s what we know so far.
1. Hair Color And Cancer
In its earliest formulations, some specific components found in hair color were found to have carcinogenic properties when tested on animals. In the 80s, hair color manufacturing companies got rid of some of these chemicals to make hair color safer.3 However, today, scientists don’t have a definitive verdict on whether current formulations of hair color still contain cancer-causing chemicals.
A Swedish study of about 45,000 hairdressers showed that hairdressers were not at an increased risk of developing bladder cancer.4 But a 2009 survey of several research studies found that hairdressers who had been coloring clients’ hair for 10 or more years were at a higher risk of developing bladder cancer.5
Additional research studies have established a relationship (not necessarily causal) between using hair color and the likelihood of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma.6
Researchers have also found some evidence to suggest that long-term use of permanent hair color can possibly make one more likely to develop adult acute leukemia.7 But other studies have not supported these claims. Research also does not indicate a relationship between hair color and breast cancer.8
Because of these mixed results, the scientific community remains largely ambiguous on whether hair color can be categorically said to be linked with various types of cancer. At most, there is a “very minimal” link between modern hair color and the risk of developing cancer.9
The Food and Drug Administration notes that hair color manufacturers are no longer using the two key chemicals that were found to have carcinogenic properties back in the 70s and 80s and that it does not have enough “reliable evidence” to establish a definitive link between hair color and cancer.10
2. Hair Dye And Allergies
Allergic reactions to hair dye are fairly common because it contains paraphenylenediamine (PPD), a common allergen. People prone to contact dermatitis may be especially likely to develop an allergic reaction to hair color.11
As a safety precaution, always perform a patch test before coloring your hair. Instructions that come with the box of hair dye will usually recommend that you apply a small amount of the hair color solution on the inside of your elbow. You need to allow it to dry and see if you develop any allergic reaction, including rashes, itchiness, swollen eyes, wheezing, and nausea.12
3. Hair Dye And Fertility
Lead acetate is often a component in progressive hair dyes, used to color hair over multiple applications. Some research studies have shown that lead acetate can possibly affect fertility in both men and women.13 A recent study also revealed that due to being constantly exposed to chemicals found in hair products (including hair dyes), hairdressers are more likely to have a reproductive disorder.14 The FDA, however, maintains that the level of lead acetate is not sufficient enough to cause lead to be absorbed by the body. They do, however, ask for a cautionary note to appear in all products with it.15
4. Hair Dye And Hair Health
Regular use of hair dyes, especially permanent color, can render your hair brittle and over-processed. Ammonia contained in hair dyes gets inside your hair shaft and into the cuticles, and the peroxide is meant to neutralize the pigment that gives your hair its natural color. With frequent coloring, the hair cuticle and the hair shaft gets damaged and hair tends to lose its luster. Many hair color manufacturers have stopped using ammonia in their products but, even so, all the other chemicals in hair color aren’t exactly super-kind to your hair. 16
Color-treated hair also needs a little extra TLC which most people ignore. This usually leads to rough, dry, color-damaged hair, especially if you return to your salon every few months to color your hair.
Safety Precautions To Take When You Dye Your Hair
Research may still be on the fence about the health impact of hair dyes. But you can play it safe by not overusing hair dyes. For instance, reduce the frequency of dyeing your grays if you are unwilling to cut it out altogether. And ask yourself if you really need to randomly change color every other week!
When you do use hair dyes, make sure to follow some safety precautions.
- Always follow the instructions outlined on the hair color product packaging.
- Perform a patch test as directed, especially if you’re coloring your hair for the very first time or trying a new brand. In fact, with the constant modifications in ingredients, a patch test is a good idea every time!
- Keep the color solution away from your eyes, and always wear protective gloves.
- The FDA recommends that you don’t leave the color solution on your hair longer than directed on the packaging.
- Don’t color your hair if your scalp is itchy or sunburned.
- Also, never use hair color on your eyelashes or eyebrows. This can be very harmful to your eyes and you even risk going blind – no joke!17 18
Coloring Your Hair During Pregnancy
Many women are hesitant to color their hair during pregnancy or immediately after childbirth due to the presence of so many chemicals in hair color. The American Pregnancy Association, however, maintains that chemicals found in permanent and semi-permanent hair color are not really toxic and that there’s no harm in using hair color while pregnant. In addition, only very little dye is absorbed by your skin and even less is actually likely to reach the unborn baby. The same also holds true for breastfeeding. There is little to no chance of hair color chemicals entering your bloodstream and contaminating your milk supply.19
That said, due to the possible risks associated with exposure to chemicals in hair dye, many OB/GYNs recommend that you wait until the end of your first trimester to color your hair.20 To be safe, always check with your OB/GYN and avoid if you can.
Natural Alternatives To Chemical Hair Color
If all this talk about chemicals has you worried about what you’re subjecting your mane to, don’t worry. There are plenty of natural ways to tint your hair that don’t involve harmful chemicals.
Henna has been used for centuries by women in Asia to add a reddish, burgundy hue to hair. Henna hair dye also conditions your hair and leaves it luxuriously soft. With regular use, your hair becomes naturally henna-colored, which can work well if you have dark brown hair.
- Lemon juice can help lighten hair, if that’s your goal.
- Chamomile tea can help add natural highlights.
- Black tea and coffee, brewed and then cooled, can help make hair darker.
References [ + ]
|1.||↑||Global Hair Color Market Will Boom Following the Development of Organized Retail Through 2019, Says Technavio. Business Wire.|
|2.||↑||WHAT’S THAT STUFF? American Chemical Society.|
|3.||↑||Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk. National Cancer Institute.|
|4, 9.||↑||Cancer Myth: Hair dyes and cancer. Cancer Council Western Australia.|
|5.||↑||Harling, Melanie, Anja Schablon, Grita Schedlbauer, Madeleine Dulon, and Albert Nienhaus. “Bladder cancer among hairdressers: a meta-analysis.” Occupational and environmental medicine 67, no. 5 (2010): 351-358.|
|6.||↑||Zahm, Shelia Hoar, Dennis D. Weisenburger, Paula A. Babbitt, Robert C. Saal, Jimmie B. Vaught, and Aaron Blair. “Use of hair coloring products and the risk of lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.” American Journal of Public Health 82, no. 7 (1992): 990-997.|
|7.||↑||Rauscher, Garth H., David Shore, and Dale P. Sandler. “Hair dye use and risk of adult acute leukemia.” American journal of epidemiology 160, no. 1 (2004): 19-25.|
|8.||↑||HAIR DYES AND BREAST CANCER RISK. Susan G. Komen.|
|10, 17.||↑||Hair Dyes. US Food and Drug Administration.|
|11, 12.||↑||Hair dye reactions. NHS.|
|13.||↑||What to Look Out For. The Pennsylvania State University.|
|14.||↑||Kim, Dohyung, Mo-Yeol Kang, Sungyeul Choi, Jaechan Park, Hye-Ji Lee, and Eun-A. Kim. “Reproductive disorders among cosmetologists and hairdressers: a meta-analysis.” International archives of occupational and environmental health 89, no. 5 (2016): 739-753.|
|15.||↑||Lead Acetate in “Progressive” Hair Dye Products. FDA.|
|16.||↑||Carlson, Karen J., Stephanie A. Eisenstat, and Terra Diane Ziporyn. The new Harvard guide to women’s health. Vol. 1. Harvard University Press, 2004.|
|18.||↑||Hair Dyes. American Cancer Society.|
|19.||↑||Hair Treatment During Pregnancy. American Pregnancy Association.|
|20.||↑||Fertility FAQs. University of California Los Angeles.|