Amazing Health Benefits Of Eating Broccoli
Looking for a nutrient dense vegetable to add to your menu? Go for broccoli, which has a healthy dose of vitamins, potassium, magnesium, and fiber. This super veggie can regulate your blood pressure, reduce cholesterol, and manage your diabetes. It can even fight depression. More importantly, it has a place in your anticancer diet because of the presence of sulforaphane, which is a phytochemical.
You may have heard a lot about the greatness of green leafy vegetables. But, chances are that you still do not add them to your daily menu. Well, it’s high time you change your mind. Because, they are nutrient dense vegetables, which can prevent various medical conditions and keep you healthy. Broccoli is one such leafy vegetable and enjoys a highly esteemed position among them.
Nutritional Profile Of Broccoli
What makes broccoli a superfood? It has a healthy dose of all nutrients.1 It is a rich source of potassium, magnesium, and fiber. Broccoli is a cruciferous vegetable, which contains several carotenoids (beta-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin) and vitamins C, E, and K. They are also a good source of dietary fiber.2 This super veggie has folate, which is a water-soluble vitamin. More importantly, sulforaphane, a phytochemical which has antioxidative properties can be obtained from broccoli.
Most of the studies are focused on the benefits of florets of broccoli. However, a few research have concluded that the leaves and stems of broccoli also contain high levels of phenolics and they have high antioxidant and anticancer activities.3 Thus, broccoli by-products such as leaves and stems can also be used as functional food ingredients in the food industry.
Health Benefits Of Broccoli
With an excellent nutritional profile to its credits, broccoli can benefit your health in many ways. Here are a few positive ways in which broccoli impacts your body.
1. Prevents Cancer
Broccoli should be an essential ingredient in your anti-cancer diet. Cruciferous vegetables contain sulforaphane, which has anti-cancer properties.4 Broccoli sprouts have a bigger role to play as they contain a high concentration of cancer-protective sulforaphane. It is found that small quantities of crucifer sprouts may protect against the risk of cancer as effectively as much larger quantities of mature vegetables of the same variety.5 The association between the broccoli intake and the risk of cancer has been studied widely. Some research studies failed to find any positive result. Some case-control studies suggest that there is a lower risk of prostate cancer in people who ate greater amounts of cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli.6 It is also found that women who ate more cruciferous vegetables have a lower risk of colon cancer and lung cancer.
2. Maintains Heart Health
This dark green leafy vegetable provides an adequate amount of folate, that can promote your heart health. The presence of antioxidants in broccoli also helps in decreasing the risk of heart disease.7 A diet rich in polyphenol is known for strengthening the cardiovascular functions. Broccoli is a dietary source of quercetin, which is a polyphenol.8
3. Works Against Inflammation
Broccoli florets exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting nitric oxide, which plays a role in inflammatory responses.9 Sulforaphane, the natural isothiocyanate in broccoli also helps in fighting inflammation.10 According to a research, in young male smokers, broccoli consumption may reduce the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), which is a blood test marker for inflammation.11 Broccoli can be included in your arthritis diet as vitamin-K in it reduces inflammatory markers in the blood.12
4. Regulates Blood Pressure And Blood Sugar
Low calcium is a factor that contributes to high blood pressure. By including calcium-rich food like broccoli in your menu, you can manage your blood pressure.13 Also, the chromium content in broccoli regulates your blood sugar. It increases insulin’s efficiency and thereby, increases glucose tolerance.14
5. Promotes Digestion
The high fiber content in broccoli is responsible for its digestive benefits. As the intake of dietary fiber increases, it positively impacts your gut health, facilitating better digestion.15
6. Provides Eye Health
As you age, your eyes are prone to many conditions such as cataract and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Broccoli is recommended to prevent these diseases. It contains lutein and zeaxanthin, which are essential components for your ocular health.16 The dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories are significant in reducing the risk of age-related diseases. This makes broccoli a major player in protecting your eyes as it is rich in vitamin C, which is an antioxidant.17 Apart from this, broccoli has vitamin B2 (riboflavin), which is important for normal vision.18
7. Reduces Cholesterol
A new variety of broccoli reduces LDL cholesterol by around 6 %, according to a research by Institute of Food Research.19 This variety was bred to contain two to three times more of a naturally occurring compound glucoraphanin.
8. Fights Depression
Do you know the power of this crunchy veggie to battle depression? According to research, it can. The presence of sulforaphane gives this potential to the superfood. Sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprouts have deterrent effects on inflammation-related depressive symptoms.20
9. Keeps Your Bones Healthy
You may know the importance of calcium in maintaining your bone health. By adopting a nutritional diet, you can ensure that your body gets adequate calcium. The good news is that calcium in vegetables like broccoli is very well absorbed.21 Besides calcium, broccoli is an excellent source of vitamin K, which is essential for bones.22
10. Prevents Skin Damage
Looking for a way to fight the wrinkles on your skin? Fall in love with broccoli, which is rich in vitamin C, a powerful antioxidant. Vitamin C is also essential for the synthesis of collagen that keeps your skin looking firm.23 Even the topical application of broccoli sprouts could help you. According to a team of Johns Hopkins scientists, applying an extract of broccoli sprouts can protect your skin against the damaging effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation.24 The extract could treat the skin redness caused by UV rays. This can, in turn, reduce the long-term risk of developing skin cancer.
11. Helps You Lose Weight
A nutrient-rich food loaded with vitamins, minerals, and fiber is a perfect fit for your fat-free diet. Then, go for broccoli, which is also low in calories. If you crave for snacks, pick up half a cup of broccoli. It has a mere 25 calories.25
12. Prevents Anemia
Many factors lead to anemia, making you feel tired. A lack of iron or other nutrients in the diet may prevent your body from producing enough red blood cells, causing anemia. Vitamin C helps the body absorb iron and thus, broccoli rich in vitamin-c could save you from feeling anemic.26
13. Detoxifies Your Body
Sulforaphane, the protective phytochemical in broccoli takes care of the body’s defence mechanism against carcinogens. It induces detoxification enzymes, which help in deactivating carcinogens and free radicals.27 It is found that 3-day-old sprouts of broccoli have more detoxifying capacity than the mature plants.28
14. Keeps You Healthy During Pregnancy
If you are pregnant, you know how important is calcium during this period. It is vital to support the nervous and circulatory systems. Broccoli, as a calcium-rich food, can provide you adequate amount of calcium during your pregnancy period.29 Moreover, there is another good news about broccoli consumption. In animal studies, it is found that broccoli sprout supplementation during pregnancy prevents brain injury in the newborn following placental insufficiency.30
Choosing Between Raw And Cooked Broccoli
Cooking broccoli by microwaving, boiling, and stir-frying may lead to the loss of vitamin C and reduce the total soluble proteins and soluble sugars. However, steaming causes the lowest loss of nutrients in broccoli.31 Researchers at the University of Warwick have found that boiling broccoli will damage its anticancer properties.32 Thus, the antioxidant effect of broccoli is less when you cook it. So, eat it raw to reap the maximum benefits. The consumption of raw broccoli results in faster absorption of sulforaphane, compared to cooked broccoli.33
Broccoli is considered a safe food for all. However, there was a case of mugwort-mustard allergy syndrome (MMAS) reported after broccoli consumption.34 MMAS happens in individuals who are sensitized to mugwort. But, it is a relatively rare form of food allergy.
References [ + ]
|1.||↑||Basic Report: 11090, Broccoli, raw. United States Department of Agriculture.|
|2.||↑||Cruciferous Vegetables and Cancer Prevention. National Cancer Institute.|
|3.||↑||Hwang, Joon-Ho, and Sang-Bin Lim. “Antioxidant and anticancer activities of broccoli by-products from different cultivars and maturity stages at harvest.” Preventive nutrition and food science 20, no. 1 (2015): 8.|
|4.||↑||Donaldson, Michael S. “Nutrition and cancer: a review of the evidence for an anti-cancer diet.” Nutrition journal 3, no. 1 (2004): 19.|
|5, 27, 28.||↑||Fahey, Jed W., Yuesheng Zhang, and Paul Talalay. “Broccoli sprouts: an exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 94, no. 19 (1997): 10367-10372.|
|6.||↑||Cruciferous Vegetables and Cancer Prevention. National Cancer Institute.|
|7.||↑||Dark Green Leafy Vegetables. United States Department of Agriculture.|
|8.||↑||Khurana, Sandhya, Krishnan Venkataraman, Amanda Hollingsworth, Matthew Piche, and T. C. Tai. “Polyphenols: benefits to the cardiovascular system in health and in aging.” Nutrients 5, no. 10 (2013): 3779-3827.|
|9.||↑||Hwang, Joon-Ho, and Sang-Bin Lim. “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of broccoli florets in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.” Preventive nutrition and food science 19, no. 2 (2014): 89.|
|10.||↑||Lin, Wen, Rachel T. Wu, Tienyuan Wu, Tin-Oo Khor, Hu Wang, and Ah-Ng Kong. “Sulforaphane suppressed LPS-induced inflammation in mouse peritoneal macrophages through Nrf2 dependent pathway.” Biochemical pharmacology 76, no. 8 (2008): 967-973.|
|11.||↑||Riso, Patrizia, Stefano Vendrame, Cristian Del Bo’, Daniela Martini, Antonia Martinetti, Ettore Seregni, Francesco Visioli, Marina Parolini, and Marisa Porrini. “Effect of 10-day broccoli consumption on inflammatory status of young healthy smokers.” International journal of food sciences and nutrition 65, no. 1 (2014): 106-111.|
|12.||↑||The Ultimate Arthritis Diet. Arthritis Foundation.|
|13.||↑||High Blood Pressure. The University of Arzone.|
|14.||↑||Calbom, Cherie. The Juice Lady’s Guide To Juicing for Health: Unleashing the Healing Power of Whole Fruits and Vegetables Revised Edition. Penguin, 2008.|
|15.||↑||Slavin, Joanne. “Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits.” Nutrients 5, no. 4 (2013): 1417-1435.|
|16.||↑||Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M., Humayoun Akhtar, Khalid Zaheer, and Rashida Ali. “Dietary sources of lutein and zeaxanthin carotenoids and their role in eye health.” Nutrients 5, no. 4 (2013): 1169-1185.|
|17.||↑||Rasmussen, Helen M., and Elizabeth J. Johnson. “Nutrients for the aging eye.” Clin Interv Aging 8 (2013): 741-748.|
|18.||↑||Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin). University of Maryland Medical Center.|
|19.||↑||Armah, Charlotte N., Christos Derdemezis, Maria H. Traka, Jack R. Dainty, Joanne F. Doleman, Shikha Saha, Wing Leung, John F. Potter, Julie A. Lovegrove, and Richard F. Mithen. “Diet rich in high glucoraphanin broccoli reduces plasma LDL cholesterol: Evidence from randomised controlled trials.” Molecular nutrition & food research 59, no. 5 (2015): 918-926.|
|20.||↑||Zhang, Ji-chun, Wei Yao, Chao Dong, Chun Yang, Qian Ren, Min Ma, Mei Han et al. “Prophylactic effects of sulforaphane on depression-like behavior and dendritic changes in mice after inflammation.” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 39 (2017): 134-144.|
|21.||↑||Office of the Surgeon General (US. “Lifestyle Approaches to Promote Bone Health.” (2004).|
|22.||↑||Vitamin K. National Institutes of Health.|
|23.||↑||Freytag, Chris. Move to Lose. Penguin, 2005.|
|24.||↑||Broccoli Sprout-Derived Extract Protects Against Ultraviolet Radiation. Johns Hopkins Medicine.|
|25.||↑||Woodruff, Sandra. Secrets of Fat-Free Cooking. Penguin, 1995.|
|26.||↑||Anemia. PubMed Health.|
|29.||↑||Where To Get Calcium Naturally During Pregnancy. American Pregnancy Association.|
|30.||↑||Black, A. M., E. A. Armstrong, O. Scott, B. J. H. Juurlink, and J. Y. Yager. “Broccoli sprout supplementation during pregnancy prevents brain injury in the newborn rat following placental insufficiency.” Behavioural brain research 291 (2015): 289-298.|
|31.||↑||Yuan, Gao-feng, Bo Sun, Jing Yuan, and Qiao-mei Wang. “Effects of different cooking methods on health-promoting compounds of broccoli.” Journal of Zhejiang University Science B 10, no. 8 (2009): 580.|
|32.||↑||Research Says Boiling Broccoli Ruins Its Anti Cancer Properties. University of Warwick.|
|33.||↑||Vermeulen, Martijn, Ineke WAA Klöpping-Ketelaars, Robin van den Berg, and Wouter HJ Vaes. “Bioavailability and kinetics of sulforaphane in humans after consumption of cooked versus raw broccoli.” Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 56, no. 22 (2008): 10505-10509.|
|34.||↑||Sugita, Yuri, Teruhiko Makino, Megumi Mizawa, and Tadamichi Shimizu. “Mugwort-Mustard Allergy Syndrome due to Broccoli Consumption.” Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine 2016 (2016).|